dimanche 21 juillet 2024 09:39

Islam, Constitution, State and Religions in Italy - Francesco Zannini - Italie

mercredi, 20 mai 2009





In Italy, Muslims have been present since the Arab Muslims landed in Mazara in 827 AD and they established themselves in Sicily from 828 AD[1] to 1300 AD.[2] Since then, in fact, they have been part of the Italian culture and tradition in various ways: as invaders and pirates in the coastal areas, as well as ambassadors and diplomats. Most notably they have been present as merchants in Venice and other important sea towns in Italy.

More recently, the immigration phenomenon has been the primary element that has triggered both attitudes of dialogue and intolerance in Italy. The "Islamic question" became a key issue in the 1970's when North African immigrants (mostly of Berber or Arab origin) came from Morocco. The number of Muslims present in the country increased steadily in the following decades with new comers from Albania who were then followed by immigrants from Egypt, Tunisia, Senegal, Somalia, Pakistan and Bangladesh.



1. Muslims in Italy

At the moment, Islam in Italy is the second largest religion behind Catholicism. Though there is a small number of Italians who have converted to Islam, the Muslim population is mainly represented by immigrants from several Muslim countries.

According to the Caritas Migrantes Yearly Report their number seems to be roughly 1,253,704, which represents about 31.4% of the immigrant population in Italy.[3]

The Muslim community in Italy is not a homogenous one. There are big differences regarding sex, age, race and nationality. They come from different ethnic groups and different countries, they speak different languages, and have different social backgrounds and often religion seems to be the only link among them, though, even in this case, they are following different juridical, mystical and theological schools of thought. Most of them are Sunnites, but there is also a Shiite minority among them, while a great part of the Asian and Sub-Saharan Muslims are followers of different Sufi Confraternities.[4]

There are communities of Muslims who regularly meet in houses and homemade mosques and here and there in the national territory there is the appearance of Islamic cultural centers. Among them the most relevant and well known is the Italian Institute of Islamic culture in Rome, attached to a superb mosque, probably the largest in Western Europe, built in 1995.[5] Others can be found in Milan, Naples, and Palermo and in several other towns around the country. Most of the members of these communities and centers are Muslims of different origins and belonging to different ethnic and religious backgrounds,[6] including native Italians who gather around a number of rivaling Muslim organizations, often without a public legal status, which have become, in the last few years, increasingly active in promoting self-awareness among the Muslims in Italy and in expressing the concerns and the demands of their communities.



2. Concordat, Constitution, Intesa

The Italian Constitution guarantees both religious freedom and a bilateral relationship between the State and Religions or faith communities[7].

The so-called "Concordat", was established with the Catholic Church on February 11th 1929, as part of the Lateran Pacts. This put an end to the issue between Italy and the Holy See after the events of 1870 with the fall of Rome and its proclamation as the capital of Italy.

The Lateran Pacts, which came to regulate a whole series of relations between the Italian State and the Holy See, were included in the text of the Italian Constitution in 1947[8].

Some modifications in the Treaty seemed necessary fifty years later due to the passage of time and the socio-economic changes this had produced. Consequently on the February 18th 1984, the Republic of Italy and the Vatican both signed the Revised Agreement of the 1929 Lateran Pacts, which was prepared by a Bilateral Commission. This came into effect on March 25th 1985 in Italian legislation (Law No. 121) after being ratified first by both the House of Representatives and the Senate, and then by the Holy See on June 3rd, 1985.[9]

Immediately after this new agreement with the Catholic Church, the Italian State started to work on special agreements, which were to be signed between the Republic and all religious confessions in Italy[10]. This was already foreseen in the abovementioned Art. 8 of the Constitution: "(1) All religious denominations shall be equally free before the law. (2) Religious denominations which are other than the Catholic Church shall have the right to organize themselves according to their own by-laws; provided that they are not in conflict with the Italian legal system. (3) Their relations with the State shall be regulated by law on the basis of agreements with their respective representatives.[11] According to this article, the institution of this agreement (intesa) allows for "non-catholic" faith-communities to obtain similar rights and privileges as those of the Roman Catholic Church.[12]

An agreement (intesa) with the Italian State can only be requested by those faith communities, which have been officially recognized and awarded legal status according to law N° 1159 of 24 June 1929 (the so-called law of admitted cults). This law, which has been reinterpreted in light of Italy's post-war Constitution, allows for other non-Catholic religions to practice as long as their rites are not in opposition to public order or ethics. They can be awarded legal status by presidential decree on the basis of a recommendation from the Ministry of Home Affairs, which also has to approve the nomination of these non-catholic ministers of religions.[13] Since then, the various initiatives introduced in Parliament to modernize this law and to introduce a "law for religious freedom"-which would replace the so-called law of admitted cults - have failed thus far.[14]

During the last twenty years, some Muslim Organizations in Italy have attempted to stipulate such agreements[15] with the Italian State. So far, none of them have been successful[16] due to the lack of hierarchical organization and institutional leadership among Muslim Communities. This has also prevented them from obtaining official recognition as legal personalities according to the law, except for the case of the Islamic Cultural Center of Italy (C.I.C.I.).[17] Because of the competition among Muslim associations and ethnic groups for the social and political hegemony over all the Muslim Communities present in Italy, a federation of the rivaling Muslim organizations in Italy is still being prevented.

Nevertheless, because of the religious freedom guaranteed by the Italian Constitution,[18] local permission has been granted to open mosques, to have ḥalâl[19] shops and butchers, special places in the cemetery and other facilities, not without debates and opposition on the part of some Italians.



3. The "Charter of Values"

The fragmentation of the Muslim society in Italy, the problem of giving answers to issues, such as the leadership (imâms) of the Muslim communities, the possibility of having Islamic education in public schools, the creation of Islamic private schools, as well as the security problem due to the possible infiltration of terrorism and illegal practices in a world which could not be always under control, led the Italian Minister of Home Affairs to create, in 2005, a Council for Italian Islam,[20] whose main task was to express opinions and make suggestions on the issues concerned with the welfare of Muslims in Italy and their integration into the national society in full respect of the laws and the Italian Constitution.

Among the purposes of this Council has always been the creation of an Italian expression of the Islamic tradition and the building up of a Muslim community which should be open to the society they live in and integrate itself into it within the frame of its laws and regulations, with full respect for the national identity and the values of the country. It was thanks to the debate within this Council that some of its members suggested that there was a need to draw a sort of chart of the main values the different Muslim communities in Italy would accept in order to open a dialogue among them. Then, under the impulse of the Minister Home Affairs, the question of tolerance and dialogue with the other religious communities and congregations came about and it was in this context and within the Council itself that the suggestion of having a "Charter of Values of Citizenship and Integration" came out.

In fact, the decision to elaborate a "Charter of Values of Citizenship and Integration", was finally taken by the Italian Minister of Home Affairs in the course of 2006 with the main purpose of summarizing and making explicit the fundamental principles that regulate the collective life in Italy with particular attention to the immigrants, and to spread light on the problems involved with their integration into the Italian society. For this purpose the Home minister set up an ad hoc Scientific Committee[21] composed of specialists both in juridical and in Islamic Studies.[22]

In carrying out its mandate, the Committee started its work with some advisory meetings with components of the above-mentioned Council for Italian Islam. There then followed a series of hearings of individuals and delegations involving both Italian citizens and immigrants of different origins. The composition of the delegations was always such as to guarantee a high level of ethnic, religious, social and professional pluralism. Large space was given to the representative of the religious communities, such as the Catholic and Protestant Churches, the so called Evangelical Churches, the Buddhist and Hindu Unions, the Sikh Associations, the Union of the Jewish Communities and a particular attention was given to the variegated and pluralistic world of the Italian Islam with the several Muslim institutions and organizations.

This proceeding has allowed the Committee to formulate a hypothesis of the text of the "Charter of Values of Citizenship and Integration", already discussed and approved by the representative of the various Religions and Associations of immigrants present in Italy in the course of the above mentioned hearings, with the results that the final text, elaborated with reference to the contributions received during the hearing by the members of the Committee, found a natural acceptance by the above mentioned Religious groups and immigrants' associations.


Finally the document prepared by the Scientific Committee was approved with a Ministerial Decree on April 23rd 2007.

The Charter of Values explains and clarifies the principles of the Italian Constitution and the main European and international Charters of human rights, but it focuses in a special manner on those problems that the multiculturalism puts to the western society. In this respect the principles of democracy and secularism, on which such regulations are based, constitute solid guarantees to meet the requirements of the various communities of immigrants and to respect the religious freedom of whoever plans to settle in the national territory.

Within this background, the Charter of Values tries to clarify the concept of citizenship and to find out the best way of cohabitation among different national, ethnic and religious communities, which, in the last years, have started to take root in the Italian territory.

There must be a feeling among the natives and the immigrants that: "Living in the same territory means to be full-fledged citizens of that land and acquire, with loyalty and coherence, common values and share responsibilities."[23]

The document starts presenting Italy as a "community of persons and values" and by drawing a brief picture of its cultural tradition,[24] where the Constitution of 1947 represents for the Italians the peak of their historical path in formulating the main values on which is built their society.

The text, then, with the other European and international Charters on Human Rights, put the stress on the effort towards "the realization of an international order based on the respect of human rights, equality and solidarity among peoples"[25] which creates also a sound spirit of welcoming other populations and cultures. This way Italy is presented as a country with an ancient story, culture, as well as with sound civil and religious traditions, and it cannot be considered by anyone "no man's land" or a "free port".

The ticklish issue of the integration of those who are coming to settle in Italy is faced in the light of the key principle of the absolute value of the human person, which makes this country "committed to ensuring that every person, since his/her arrival in Italy, is guaranteed the respect of his/her fundamental rights, regardless of his/her gender, ethnicity, religion and social condition. At the same time, though, anyone living in Italy must respect the values on which the Italian society is based, the rights of the others, and the duties of solidarity envisaged by the law".[26]

The positive attitude of the Charter toward the Muslim is part of the general respect the Italian people have for all religions and it is in particular shown through their rejection of "every expression of xenophobia, which can be expressed in turn as Islamophobia or prejudices towards populations coming from other parts of the World".[27]


However there are some touchy issues with respect to the Muslim that have not been overlooked.

One of the most difficult matters the Charter deals with is the one of "family and new generations" which often creates tensions in the process of integrations among cultures and traditions, particularly between the eastern and western ones. Here the Charter deals with some sensitive issues, as far as the Islamic point of view is concerned, such as the family structure: "Marriage is based on equal rights and responsibilities of husband and wife and it is, therefore, monogamic. Monogamy unites the lives of two persons thus making them both responsible for what they realize together, starting from the bringing up of their children. Italy forbids polygamy, it being adverse to women's rights. This is also in line with the principles affirmed by European institutions".[28] In fact, in this passage polygamy, whose permission is stated in the Qur'ân[29] itself in a context of the social solidarity with the widows and the orphans, is presented within the frame of the positive aspects of monogamy. In fact, some Muslim countries, like Turkey and Tunisia, have already forbidden polygamy and Morocco has made it very hard to be pursued.[30] In others is allowed only under the obligatory condition of informing the first wife and it is subordinated to her written and official approval and the majority of the Islamic organizations have never asked officially the legitimization of polygamy in the West.


Another point that emerges in the chapter on "family and new generations" is the freedom in marriage, where it states: "The basis of marriage is the freedom to choose whom to marry, that belongs to the youth",[31] where no Muslim will object to the fact that this statement "entails the prohibition of coercion and forced marriages, or child marriages".[32] But still it remains the fact that Muslim marriage undergoes some Qur'ânic obstacles such as the disparity of religions, where it is forbidden for a Muslim woman to marry a non-Muslim[33] and this, in spite of the general acceptance of the "Charter of Values" by all the Muslim organizations, has created some sort of hesitations among some Muslims.[34]

The matter of equality between man and woman and among human beings in general, grafted in the presentation of the family given in the charter leads also to the refusal of separation between sexes, as stated: "The principle of equality disagrees with the requests of separating men and women, boys and girls, in public services and in the workplace because of their religious beliefs".[35] Even in this case the process of implementing this new attitude will ask a great capacity of dialogue to overcome a practice due often to cultural traditions, but also linked, in some cases, to religious precepts.

The chapter on "secularism and religious freedom" deals with the issue of the relationship between State and religion and is in a way in many aspects dissimilar to the way is dealt in some other countries. The two main element that constitute the Italian concept of "secularism" are its welcoming attitude and its positive approach to religion as it is clearly stated in the text: "The Italian secular State recognizes the positive contribution of the different religions to the collectivity and has the intention to enhance the moral and spiritual legacy of each one of them. Italy promotes inter-faith and inter-cultural dialogue in order to increase the respect for human dignity and contribute to overcoming prejudices and intolerance",[36] provided that religion and convictions are not "a reason for discrimination in social life"[37] and that they do not motivate any " type of violence, incitement to violence".[38] However secularism implies, besides the right "to spread it by convincing others, to create religious associations",[39] religious freedom and liberty of conscience which "entail the right to have or not to have a religious faith, to practice it or not, to change religion"[40]

The positive and dialogical attitude of the Italian secularism also appears when it is stated that: "on the basis of its religious and cultural tradition, Italy respects the symbols and the signs of all religions. No one can say to be offended by the signs and symbols of a religion different from his/her own",[41] and when it suggests that "it is convenient to educate the youth to respect the other's religious beliefs, without finding in them elements of division",[42] a statement which is reinforced in the following article where we read: "In Italy there are no restrictions on people's attire, as long as it is chosen freely and it is not detrimental to his/her dignity. It is not accepted to cover the face because this impedes the person's recognition and hinders establishing relations with the others".[43]In this context the lengthy and at time harsh debate on the "Islamic veil" or the presence of the "Cross" in public places seems to have been completely overcome.

In its last part which deal with "Italy's international commitment", the Charter stresses "Italy's policy is in favour of peace and respect of all peoples in order to promote coexistence of nations, and to defeat war and terrorism"[44] and, quoting the text of Italian Constitution,[45] its rejection of "war as an instrument to solve international controversies, weapons of mass destruction, and any form of torture or inhumane and degrading punishment",[46] which seems to have had the approval of all the Muslims and Islamic organizations so far consulted. Some problems may, however, at times arise with the issue of the death penalty,[47] particularly with reference to the statement: "The abolition of the death penalty is an objective of civilization, which makes the respect for life win over the spirit of revenge"[48] because of the Qur'ânic provisions on the matter,[49] but it can be argued that the Qur'ân shows a general respect for life as in Q. 6:151.[50] As for the other ticklish question, that is the solution of "the longstanding Israeli-Palestinian conflict",[51] the Charter simply reaffirms the long time Italian foreign policy "in favour of a solution for the coexistence of different peoples in the region, first of all Israelis and Palestinians in the context of two States and two democracies."[52]

The Charter then concludes remembering that "Together with the other European Countries, at the international level Italy promotes the respect of dignity and human rights everywhere, and favours the achievement of political democracy as a form of government that allows the participation of citizens in the common good and the growing respect of the person's rights".[53]




The follow up

In order to implement the Charter, the members of the Scientific Council,[54] have been requested, among other tasks, to promote dialogue and understanding among the different Muslim groups and organizations in order to pave the way for their institutional dialogue with the Italian Government. Certainly the fact that the Charter is a result of sessions of long and deep dialogue with Muslim individuals and organizations, and that the Muslims have generally approved it is a good starting point that may lead to a deeper dialogue.

As a matter of fact, some Muslim members of the Council for Italian Islam, representing both Shiites and Sunnites, reached an agreement on a "Declaration of intent"[55] to set up a plan for organizing Muslims who live in Italy into a "Federation of Italian Islam" and it is worth noticing that this Declaration not only aims at "uniting all the existing Muslim organizations, associations and cultural centers who share the principles of the Italian Constitution and of the Charter of Values"[56], but also at "promoting interreligious dialogue" which is considered as an "essential instrument for coexistence among people of every belief"[57].





This last "Declaration of intent", as well as the approval of the "Charter of Values of Citizenship and Integration" by the Muslim communities and associations represents an important step in the path towards inter-religious and inter-cultural dialogue and will be a useful tool given to the Italian people and particularly to the new generation in the process of integration and creation of a dialogical multi-cultural and multi-religious society within the frame of the welcoming secularism which is a particularity of the Italian culture and tradition.



[1] First Muslim conquest of Sicily

[2] destruction of the last Islamic stronghold of Lucera in Puglia.

[3] See: Caritas e Migrantes, Immigrazione, Dossier Statistico 2008, IDOS, Roma 2008, p. 197

[4] The number of their associations, groups and organizations are growing. Apparently, the largest one seems to be the U.C.O.I.I. (Union of the Islamic Communities and Organizations in Italy), followed by the U.S.I. (Muslim Student Union), the C.I.C.I. (Islamic Cultural Center of Italy) in Rome, the C.I.M.L. (Islamic Cultural Center of Milan and Lombardia) in Milan, the CO.RE.IS (Islamic Italian Religious Community), the A.I.I.I. (Italian Association for the Information on Islam), and the A.M.I.-I.C.C.I.I. (Italian Muslim Association - Cultural Institute of the Italian Islamic Community). There are also several other associations and Sufi brotherhoods. The main modern Muslim movements, like Jama'at al-Tabligh, Milli Görus, Jamaat al-Islami and the Muslim Brothers, are represented in Italy with a good number of followers (for more details see: F. Zannini, Ahmed il mio vicino di casa, guida alla conoscenza dell'Islam", Ed. Iscos Marche, Ancona 2002, pp. 13-22)

[5] Centro Islamico Culturale d'Italia (Islamic Cultural Centre, CICI), awarded public legal status by D.P.R., N° 712 of 21 Dec. 1974. Its Board is largely composed of the ambassadors of Islamic States to the Holy Sea.

[6] The vast majority of Muslims in Italy are immigrants coming from various countries especially Morocco and Albania, Somalia, Egypt, Senegal, Nigeria and Pakistan.

[7] Art. 7 and 8

[8] Art. 7

[9] For details see: C. Cardia, La Riforma del Concordato, Torino 1980

[10] In 1984 the first such agreement granted specific benefits to the Waldensian Church. Similar agreements extended similar benefits to the Adventists and Assembly of God, Jews, Baptists, Lutherans, to the Buddhist Union and Jehovah's Witnesses as well as to Hindus, Orthodox Churches and other faith communities.

[11] Art. 8: "Tutte le confessioni religiose sono egualmente libere davanti alla legge. Le confessioni religiose diverse dalla cattolica hanno diritto di organizzarsi secondo i propri statuti, in quanto non contrastino con l'ordinamento giuridico italiano. I loro rapporti con lo Stato sono regolati per legge sulla base di intese con le relative rappresentanze."

[12] For an official view on religious freedom in Italy, see: L'attuazione della libertà religiosa in Italia: Note essenziali di legislazione e dottrina (Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri and Ministero dell'Interno, ed., 1995).

[13] For details see: AA. VV., Principio pattizio e realtà religiose minoritarie, Torino, 1995

[14] See: Norme sulla libertà religiosa e abrogazione della legislazione sui culti ammessi, d.d.l. N° 2531-1576-1902-A

[15] See: Cilardo A., Il diritto islamico e il sistema giuridico italiano. Le bozze di intesa tra la Repubblica italiana e le associazioni islamiche italiane, Napoli 2002, pp. 211-238

[16] Among the reasons not to be overlooked is the lack of a hierarchical organization and institutional leadership among Muslim Communities, which prevents official recognition as legal personalities (Law N° 1159 of June the 24th 1929).

[17] This is the only Islamic Organization which has been awarded legal status in 1974 is the CICI.

[18] See: Art. 8 and Art. 19 of the Italian Constitution.

[19] The Arabic word, which means "permissible", is adopted by the sharî'a with the meaning of "lawful" (the contrary is arâm: "unlawful") and most frequently refers to food that is permissible according to Islamic law. On the matter see: Q. 2:172, 2:173, 5:1, 5:3, 5:4 5:5, 6:121.

[20] Decree of September the 10th 2005 (Decreto istitutivo della Consulta), published in the Gazzetta Ufficiale, 26 Oct. 2005. On the Council for Italian Islam see: Patrizia Paba, Council for Italian Islam (contribution to the conference of the Ministers of Interior "Dialogue of Cultures and religions"), Vienna, May the19th 2005.

Half of the members of the Council are Italian citizens while the others come from Muslim countries such as Albania, Algeria, Jordan, Iraq, Libya, Morocco, Pakistan, Senegal, Syria, Somalia and Tunisia. In the setting up of such a Council particular attention has been given to the presence of minorities, women and youth. Among the organizations represented in the Council, the Ismaili Community, the Co.Re.Is. (Islamic Religious Community), the World

[21] Appointed by the Minister on October 13th 2006

[22] The members of the Scientific Committee are: Prof. Carlo Cardia (Roma Tre University), Prof. Roberta Aluffi Beck Peccoz (Torino University), Prof. On. Khaled Fouad Allam (Trieste University), Prof. Adnane Mokrani (Gregorian University), Prof. Francesco Zannini (Pontifical Institute for Arabic and Islamic Study).

[23] Art. 5.

[24] Introduction of the Charter: "Italy as a Community of Persons and Values", 1st and 2nd paragraph.

[25] Ibid. 3rd paragraph.

[26] Art. 1

[27] Art. 28

[28] Art. 17

[29] "If ye fear that ye shall not be able to deal justly with the orphans, Marry women of your choice, Two or three or four; but if ye fear that ye shall not be able to deal justly (with them), then only one, or (a captive) that your right hands possess, that will be more suitable, to prevent you from doing injustice." (Q. 4:3).

In fact in this text the conditions to be met to make polygamy legal are rather difficult to be applied, particularly in our modern society, especially when these conditions are enforced by another verse which recites: "Ye are never able to be fair and just as between women, even if it is your ardent desire: But turn not away (from a woman) altogether, so as to leave her (as it were) hanging (in the air). If ye come to a friendly understanding, and practice self- restraint, Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful." (Q. 4:129). It seems then to be acceptable for a Muslim to see in monogamy the natural shape of the family organization as an expression of the equality between man and woman, as suggested in the Qur'ân: "O mankind! reverence your Guardian-Lord, who created you from a single person, created, of like nature, His mate, and from them twain scattered (like seeds) countless men and women;- reverence Allah, through whom ye demand your mutual (rights), and (reverence) the wombs (That bore you): for Allah ever watches over you" (Q. 4:1).

[30] Within the provisions of the new Moroccan Family Law (Mudawwana) approved in 2004.

[31] Art. 18

[32] Ibid.

[33] Q. 2:22, 5:5, 60:10

[34] as it appears in the press-release of the U.CO.I.I. July 14 2007: "The Charter of Values, does not substitute the principles of the Constitution and, since it is not a sacred book, we think that in the future can be improved, adapted and modified, though so far it represents a valid and indispensable starting point, in which both native citizens and immigrants, believers and non-believers recognize themselves", which in Italian sounds as follows: "La Carta dei valori, non sostituisce, dunque, i principi costituzionali, e non essendo testo sacro, riteniamo che in futuro la si possa migliorare, integrare e modificare; oggi costituisce un valido e imprescindibile punto di partenza in cui tutti, cittadini e immigrati, credenti e non, si riconoscono".

[35] Art.19

[36] Art. 21

[37] Ibid.

[38] Ibid.

[39] Art. 23

[40] Ibid., It is well known that Saudi Arabia, abstained from the final vote, because of its refusal of the article 18 that recognizes the freedom of conscience, included the change of religion. In fact, to change religion, "apostasy", is a criminal offense in Islam: "The Islamic law does not expect the possibility for the Muslim to change religion. Moreover this is forbidden and considered apostasy (ridda). The apostate (murtadd) is considered an enemy of Islam and socially dead and is generally sentenced to death unless he comes back to the original faith. Though this is not fully supported by the Qur'ânic verses, which refer to the matter, the punishment is largely applied on the bases of an adîth, which recites: "Kill whomever changes religion". The matter was dealt in the following Declarations of Human Rights in Islam such as the Cairo Declaration of Human Rights in Islam (CDHRI, August 5, 1990) and the Universal Islamic Declaration of Human Rights (UIDHR, 19 September 1981), without a clear support of the above-mentioned right.

[41] Art. 25

[42] Ibid.

[43] Art. 26

[44] Art. 27

[45] Art. 11

[46] Art. 28

[47] The Art. 29 recites: "Together with the other European Countries, Italy abolished the death penalty and works in the international fora to promote the abolition of capital punishment in the countries that still have it".

[48] Ibid.

[49] See, for example, in the case of a murder: Q. 2:178.

[50] See Q. 6:151: "Whether open or secret; take not life, which Allah hath made sacred, except by way of justice and law: thus doth He command you, that ye may learn wisdom" and also Q. 5:32.

[51] Art 30

[52] Ibid.

[53] Art. 31

[54] The Scientific Council for the implementation of the "Charter of Values of Citizenship and Integration", created through the Decree of the Italian Ministry of Home Affairs, April the 23rd, 2007, is composed of the same members of the previous Scientific Committee.

[55] signed by a group of Italian Muslim in front of the Minister of Home Affairs on March the 13th 2008.

[56] Consiglio Scientifico per l'attuazione e la diffusione della Carta dei Valori della Cittadinanza e dell'Integrazione, Relazione sull'Islam in Italia, Ministero dell'Interno, Roma 2008, p. 66 (original text: "aggregare le organizzazioni musulmane esistenti, associazioni, centri culturali, che condividano i principi della Costituzione italiana e della Carta dei valori")

[57] Ibid. (original text: "promuovere il dialogo interreligioso come strumento essenziale per la coesistenza tra uomini di ogni fede")


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